Daily English Vocabulary - Week 1

#english#vocabulary

前言

自从大学以来已经几乎没有花时间学过英语了,这里的”学“指的是新的主动词汇的输入,此外以前积累的 Anki 的单词卡也已经堆了很久没去动过了,于是最近想开始重拾以前的习惯,每天继续积累词汇。

对于词汇表的选择,我得找一套将四六级词汇排除在外的,显然雅思、托福、GRE 也是不大合适的,但还好翻出来一本不知道以前什么时候找着的 Murray Bromberg. 1100 Words You Need to Know,这是一本 workbook 风格的册子,按天安排了每天学习 5 个新词。

这本书安排的学习形式是,每天都先会给出一小段阅读材料,里面包含了当天要学习的生词,通过在语境当中体会单词的含义,然后完成接下来给出的选词填空,匹配释义的小练习,这也恰好很符合我一贯学英语的理念。而且书中的选词范围还挺适合我的,所以就决定用这本书啦。

Day 1

The youngster who reads voraciously, though indiscriminately, does not necessarily gain in wisdom over the teenager who is more selective in his reading choices. A young man who has read the life story of every eminent athlete of the twentieth century, or a coed who has steeped herself in every social-protest novel she can get her hands on, may very well be learning all there is to know in a very limited area. But books are replete with so many wonders that it is often discouraging to see bright young people limit their own experiences.

voracious

  • craving for great quantities of food
  • having an extremely strong desire to have a lot of something

同音词 veracious: truthful, honest

indiscrimanate

  • something discriminate makes no fine distinctions 不加区分的

派生自 discriminate 区分;辨别,源自拉丁语 discriminare,本义也是分辨,但现在这个词的词义更多地变成了歧视

eminent

  • highly regarded, respected

ex- + -minere 构成,这词根竟然跟 amount, dismount, mountain, mouth 是同源的。

prominent: important, noticable

imminent: just about to happen

steep

  • get somthing drenched or soaked in liquid

除了常见的陡峭的含义还有浸泡的意思。当然我们俗语里讲的“试一下水”在英语里的说法也很类似,也是用 steep 这个词。

replete

  • full

就是充满了的意思,来自于拉丁语 replere,词根来自于原始印欧语 *pele- (1),英语的 fill 也跟这个同源,如果了解格林定律的话很容易说得通。

Day 2

The worlds of science-fiction abound with wonders. Yet modern technology progresses so rapidly that what may be today's wild dream may be next year's kitchen appliance. A British scientist has prognosticated that within ten years every suburban matron will have her own robot servant. One task this domesticated automaton will not have to contend with will be scouring the oven because even today the newest ranges can be "programed" to reduce their own baked-on grime to easily disposed of ashes.

abound

  • to exist in large numbers

这个词跟 bound 没任何关系,是由 ab- + -ound 构成的,由拉丁语 ab away + undare rise in wave 进入古法语 abonder 再进入英语。其词根源自原始印欧语 *wed- (1) 的鼻化形式,本义是水,跟 water, wash, wet, winter 甚至还有 vodka 都是同源的。还有来自希腊语的表示水的前缀 hydro- 也是跟这个词根同源的,这又是什么奇葩音变路线

technology

很熟悉的单词了,现在很多地方还会简写成 tech

prognosticate

  • to predict

很明显可以看出跟 diagnostic 是同根的词,*gno- 就是 to know 的意思,跟英语的 know 的确也是同源的。

matron

  • (literary, British) married woman, usually middle-aged and with children

来自拉丁语 mater 母亲的意思。

automaton

  • a machine, especially one in the shape of human
  • someone who seems unable to fell motions and do things without thinking

学计算机的对这个词肯定很熟,但它本义就是像人一样的自动化机械,或者用来比喻机械做事没有感情的人。当然在计算机领域里还有术语自动机的意思。

近现代英语在造一些学术名词的时候很喜欢用 -on 这个后缀,比如

  • photon: 光子,photo- 是来自希腊语的词根,本义是光的意思,英语里的 photo 照片的意思也来自于此
  • codon: 高中生物学到的密码子,code + -on
  • exon: 外显子,ex- 前缀表示向外的
  • intron: 内显子,intro- 前缀表示向内的

然后对应翻译为汉语的时候就一般译成了 XX子

Day 3

How paradoxical that the world's greatest chefs have all been men! Cooking would clearly seem to be a field that lies exclusively within women's realm, yet the annals of cookery are replete with masculine names: Brillat Savarin, Ritz, Diat, Larousse. To compound the puzzle, there has rarely been a tinge of rumor or scandal casting doubts on the masculinity of these heroes of cuisine.

paradox

  • a statement which involves two or more facts that contradict each other

realm

  • a general area of knowledge, activity, or interest
  • (literary) a country ruled by a king or queue

annals

  • historical records

很明显这个词跟 annual 是同源的,表示一年又一年产生的记录,现在就指历史上的记录,或者用在学术领域作年鉴的意思,例如医学年鉴

要注意必须以复数形式出现,而且不要漏看或漏写了一个 n...

compound

  • to make a difficult situation worse by adding more problems

作为专有名词出现的时候都很熟悉啦,在化学上有化合物的意思,在语言学上有复合词的意思。但作为动词的时候是增加、加剧的意思,特别指让不好的情况变得更坏

tinge

  • a slight amount of a color, emotion, or quality

表示一点点、一丝丝,用来形容颜色、情感或品质

最初只是动词染上淡淡的颜色的意思 (late 15c., "to dye, color slightly"),来自于拉丁语 tingere "to dye, color"

Day 4

It is difficult to change someone's opinion by badgering him. The child who begs his mother to "get off his back" when she implores him for some assistance with the household drudgery, may very well plead interminably for some special privilege when he wants something for himself. How paradoxical that neither is able to perceive that no one likes being nagged.

badger

  • to bother, annoy persistently

除了作动词的含义以外,这个词还是下面这种动物的名字,獾(huān)

image

但这两个词义的词源并不相同,之间应该没有联系

implore

  • to plead urgently for aid or mercy

表示为很紧急的帮助恳求,这个词的词源挺有意思的,来自于in- + plorare,在拉丁语里是哭的意思。

drudgery

  • boring, dull, or hard work

指很单调乏味但又不得不干的活儿,例如打扫房间、洗衣服等等

drudge: 做苦工的人

interminable

  • unending, endless

由 terminate 派生得来

perceive

  • to understand, know, become aware of

Day 5

本来按照书的安排,第五天的内容是对前面四天所学的词汇的一个小测试。但其实前面每天的内容当中除了有五个单词之外,还有一个习语的介绍,现在就把这几个习语统一汇总在这里。

to eat humble pie

to admit your error and aplogize

a pig in a poke

an item you purchase without having seen; a disappointment

我理解的是指的冲动消费买回来但又让人不满意的东西(

a flash in the pan

promising at the start but then disappointing

指的是在一开始很被看好但最后来却让人失望的人或事

to pour oil on troubled waters

to make peace, to calm someone down

这个有点让人摸不着头脑,waters 以复数出现的时候指的是海域或者困境,看上去好像是汉语里“火上浇油”的意思,但实际上却指的是 try to calm somebody down...

不过通常使用的时候似乎还是带有贬义的,往往指的是试图去劝解却让事情变得更糟。